교회는 어디에 속할까요? 선천적인 요인인 지연으로 모이는 공동체가 아니기 때문에 게젤샤프트에 속한다고 할 수 있으며 동시에 새로운 가치, 하나님 나라와 의, 복음의 가치를 위해 새롭게 결성된 공동체가 교회라 할 수 있습니다. 사회에서의 게젤샤프트는 똑같은 보상이 있어야 조직이 유지되고, 그렇지 못하면 분열됩니다. 그러나 교회는 분열과 와해의 위기 때마다 이 부분을 뛰어넘으면서 지금까지 계속 유지되는 유일한 단체라 할 수 있습니다. 빛도 이름도 없이 일하고, 거기에 합당한 재정적 보답이 없어도 복음의 가치로 결속력을 다져가는 공동체가 교회입니다. 이것이 교회가 가지는 비전입니다.
Gemeinschaft vs. Gesellschaft
Rev. Bryan Kim
German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies explains human groupings into two social groups. Social group like family where emotions take precedence are called Gemeinschaft, and profit-based group where rationality and logics take precedence are called Gesellschaft. When Abraham heard that his nephew Lot was taken captive by king of Elam Chedorlaomer and allied forces, he took his 318 trained men to Dan and rescued Lot. (Gen 14) Against these allied forces that looted his family property and took captive, it was the action of gemeinshaft, an emotional solidarity for his bloodline. Sacrifice may follow, but he put his life on the line to save his family regardless. People who are calculating and rational (gesellshaft) cannot defeat people who jump in to save their family (gemeinschaft). However, with social advancement, we begin to see areas where these two overlap. Calculating for my family, if it benefits my community, and being able to have greater cohesive solidarity are ‘gesellschaft-ified’ gemeinschaft. When gesellschaft is amplified, it has the strength to unify one city, one nation, and furthermore one world. However, as Tönnies said, the problem is that people are essentially divided within gesellschaft. Everything must be equally divided. If there is no profit to this equality, then it could be disbanded since this is a profit-based group. Time to time, we see families squabbling over inheritance. Although this is a connected bloodline, it has become commercialized for the profit of a community. When inheritance is not distributed equally, we become divided because of our nature of division within gesellschaft.
Where does church fit in the groups? Because we are not a community that is genetically connected, we could be put in gesellschaft group. Church is a community that was formed with new values, God’s Kingdom and righteousness, and for the gospel. In society, gesellschaft can continue if there’s equity in compensation. Otherwise it will become divided. However, church is a unique group that has sustained until now because we overcome whenever there is crisis and destruction. Church is a community where we work without being in limelight, and solidify the value of the gospel even if there is no financial compensation. This is the vision of church. The society may group us as gesellschaft because we are a group formed with shared religious values. However, we have become one by the blood of Jesus Christ, God’s family. The way Abraham went out to rescue his family is an image of church. Our Bethel is still gesellschaft that has placed greatest value in God’s Kingdom, and this Coronavirus incident has become an opportunity for us to confirm that we are a faith community, all-in with emotional homogeneity as one family.